Tillman Joe Rutledge collection
Scope and Contents
This collection relates to Sergeant Tillman Joe Rutledge, who served in the 31st Infantry Regiment of the United States Army in the Far East's Philippine Division. After the fall of Bataan in April 1942, he was captured as a prisoner of war until 1945. This collection consists of one box of personal papers, including the original diary he kept during his internment and photocopies. It also contains an original draft and signed copy of his book My Japanese POW Diary Story; a 36-page oral history transcript; letters to and from his family; newspaper clippings; various government documents; and photographs.
- Majority of material found in 1941 - 1945
- Date acquired: 08/17/1998
- Rutledge, Tillman J. (Person)
Language of Materials
Conditions Governing Access
This collection is open to all researchers.
Conditions Governing Use
Institute on World War II and the Human Experience: Permission to publish, exhibit, or broadcast works from the Instituteon World War II and the Human Experience must be requested and granted in writing by the director of the Institute. Permission for publication is given on behalf of the Institute on World War II as the owner of the physical items and the copyright holder. Possession of a copy of an item does not constitute permission to publish, exhibit, or broadcast it. The Instituteon World War II and the Human Experience reserves the right to refuse permission to individuals and publishers who have not complied with its policies. Permission fees must be paid before images are provided. Please contact the director of the Institute on World War II and the Human Experience for current publication and duplication rates.
Biographical or Historical Information
Tillman Joe Rutledge was born on February 29, 1924, in Goodman, Texas to Daniel Tillman "Pete" Rutledge and Alvajoe Phillips. The eldest of three, he had two younger brothers who also served in the armed forces during the Second World War: Waymon and Lloyd. His parents separated at an undisclosed time, and he grew up in nearby Merkel with his father and stepmother, Velma. Tillman did not complete his senior year of high school, choosing instead to enlist in the U.S. Army. Because he was only seventeen at the time, he had to do so with his father's permission. He was sworn in on March 14, 1941, in Abilene, Texas. By April 22, he had crossed the Pacific on the U.S. Republic and become a member of the 31st Infantry Regiment of the United States Army in the Far East's (USAFFE) Philippine Division, also known as the "Polar Bears." He was assigned to F Company at Estado Mayor, the U.S. Army headquarters in Manila. During this time, he frequently wrote letters home to his father, brothers, and girlfriend Peggy.
The Japanese invaded on December 8, 1941, shortly after the U.S. declared war in the wake of the attack on Pearl Harbor. By early January General Douglas MacArthur ordered the American and Filipino defenses to withdraw into the Bataan Peninsula, a plan known as "War Plan Orange." The 31st Infantry covered USAFFE's retreat at Layac Junction. Though they were successful, it was captured soon afterward, marking the start of the Battle of Bataan which lasted from January 7, 1942, until April 9. Tillman was captured by the Imperial Japanese Army that very day. In addition to surviving the Bataan Death March, he was a prisoner of war (POW) in camps in the Philippines and later Japan. He was believed to be missing in action from the fall of Corregidor on May 7, 1942, until confirmed as a POW April 17, 1943.
Tillman was interned at eight camps over three and a half years, listed here in the names as he referred to them. In the Philippines, he was interned at Camp O'Donnell, Cabanatuan (Hospital Side, #2, and #3), Lipa Batangas, Bilibid, and Las Pinas. He was transferred to Japan in July 1943 and interned at Tanagawa (aka Osaka POW Camp #4-B), Camp #8 (aka Fukuoka #8 Inatsuki), and Fukuoka Camp #11 (aka Hiroshima #4 Mukaijima). During this time, he kept a secret diary of important dates, recording his experience as a POW in short entries. Most notably, he describes the terrible working conditions, malnutrition, the Japanese guards' abuse, and his own poor health. He even had an appendectomy at Cabanatuan under primitive conditions. He describes interactions with other POWs, as well, most often about his friend J.B. McBride who was also from Merkel. McBride passed away during their internment at Camp O'Donnell on October 20, 1942.
Following the announcement of Imperial Japan's surrender, the Japanese abandoned Fukuoka Camp #11 on August 15, 1945. Rations were airdropped by Allied forces, which sustained the POWs until they were liberated. Tillman was officially returned to military control on September 12 at Konoya Airfield. From there, he flew to Okinawa where he was briefly reunited with his brother Waymon. On September 19 he left Okinawa for the Philippines. He stayed in Manila—partying with fellow soldiers, ex-POWs, and local women—until October 9 when he boarded the U.S.S. Marine Shark for the States. He landed in San Francisco sometime between October 30 and November 1, and eventually returned home to Merkel, Texas.
Tillman would go on to join and serve in the United States Air Force for twenty-six years, retiring as the highest enlisted rank of chief master sergeant. He was highly decorated, the recipient of the Silver Star, two Bronze Stars, the POW medal, Combat Infantry Badge, and four Purple Hearts. Among many duty stations—throughout the U.S., England, and even Japan—he was assigned as an instructor for the Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps at Florida State University (FSU). It was here where he met his wife Joyce, whom he married in 1951. They had five children together and were married until her death in 1997. Tillman passed away on October 25, 2014, in San Antonio, Texas.
Source of Acquisition
Tillman Joe Rutledge
Method of Acquisition
Donated by Tillman Joe Rutledge
Processed January 2018
- Bataan Death March, Philippines, 1942 Subject Source: Library of Congress Subject Headings
- Bataan, Battle of, Philippines, 1942 Subject Source: Library of Congress Subject Headings
- Batangas (Philippines) Subject Source: Lcnaf
- Bilibid Prison (Manila, Philippines)
- Bronze Star Medal (U.S.) Subject Source: Library of Congress Subject Headings
- Cabanatuan (Philippines) Subject Source: Lcnaf
- Diaries Subject Source: Library of Congress Subject Headings
- Ex-prisoners of war--United States--Biography Subject Source: Local sources
- Florida State University History Subject Source: Local sources
- Fukuoka Plain (Japan) Subject Source: Library of Congress Subject Headings
- International Committee of the Red Cross. Central Agency for Prisoners of War
- MacArthur, Douglas, 1880-1964
- Philippines--History--Japanese occupation, 1942-1945 Subject Source: Library of Congress Subject Headings
- Prisoners of war--Asia Subject Source: Library of Congress Subject Headings
- Purple Heart Subject Source: Library of Congress Subject Headings
- Silver Star Subject Source: Library of Congress Subject Headings
- Texas Subject Source: Library of Congress Subject Headings
- United States--Armed Forces--Military life Subject Source: Library of Congress Subject Headings
- United States. Army. Infantry Regiment, 31st (1916-1957)
- World War, 1939-1945--Campaigns--Japan--Okinawa Island Subject Source: Library of Congress Subject Headings
- World War, 1939-1945--Campaigns--Philippines Subject Source: Library of Congress Subject Headings
- World War, 1939-1945--Campaigns--Philippines--Luzon Subject Source: Library of Congress Subject Headings
- World War, 1939-1945--Campaigns--Philippines--Manila Subject Source: Local sources
- World War, 1939-1945--Japan Subject Source: Library of Congress Subject Headings
- World War, 1939-1945--Philippines Subject Source: Library of Congress Subject Headings
- World War, 1939-1945--Prisoners and prisons Subject Source: Library of Congress Subject Headings
- Tillman Joe Rutledge collection 02.98.0464
- Elaine-Mae Ignacio
- Description rules
- Describing Archives: A Content Standard
- Language of description
- Script of description
- Code for undetermined script
- Language of description note
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